It is the most famous micro-region in Hungary. Its more complete name is Tokaj-Hegyalja, which has become world famous for its grapes and wine culture. The extent of the historical wine region extends from the tent hills of Abaújszántó to the tent mountains of Sátoraljaújhely, as the old Latin saying goes:
“Incipit in Sátor, definit in Sátor”.
Over the centuries, its territory has been delimited several times, primarily to protect the quality of the wines produced here: 10, 21, but not more than 32 settlements have been deserved to belong to the Hegyalja wine region. The first Hungarian historian, Anonymus, commemorates his grapes, wine and natural beauties in the Gesta Hungarorum. According to some sources, he himself may have come from this region, where he knows and names all streams, mountains, vineyards.
Tokaj-Hegyalja took over the role of the Turkish wine region of "Szerémség" in the 16th From the middle of the 19th century.
The XVII-XVIII. It flourished in the 19th century, and a number of rich market towns developed in the area: Szerencs, Tállya, Mád, Tarcal, Tokaj, Abaújszántó, Erdõbénye, Tolcsva, Bodrogkeresztúr, Sárospatak, Sátoraljaújhely. Local names of Olaszliszka, Bodrogolaszi, Tállya. A XVII. From the 16th century onwards, it was a real gathering place for different peoples: in addition to the Hungarians, we can find here the descendants of the Ruthenian, Slovak and Polish vineyards, the Swabian settlements, the written documents and memorabilia of the Rác, Greek and Jewish merchants. Traces of their culture can be found in Greek-Oriental churches, residential and farm buildings, Jewish cemeteries, the customs of folk life, and the use of ethnic languages still living here and there. Tokaj-Hegyalja has a rich cultural and historical heritage. This region is the cradle of the Hungarian Reformation, the Protestant school culture, and the Hungarian language literature.
The independence struggles of the Transylvanian principality and the Kuruc freedom movements (Bocskai, Thököly, the Rákóczians) often affected the Hegyalja, they were often its starting points, they served as their economic background, and its participants also came from here. Born in this landscape II. Ferenc Rákóczi and Lajos Kossuth. Volunteers from the market towns of Hegyalja played a significant role in the revolution and the war of independence in 1848/49.
Continental in nature, dry, warm late autumn weather is common, allowing the formation of aszú grains.
Brown forest soils formed on the volcanic blanket formed mainly from rhyolite, andesite, and their tuffs. The main part of the soil of the wine region is strongly bound clay, in many places stony, difficult-to-cultivate lymph. Loose soil is found on the protrusions of the Kopasz Hill in Tokaj.
Brown forest soils formed on the volcanic blanket formed mainly from rhyolite, andesite, and their tuffs. The main part of the soil of the wine region is strongly bound clay, in many places stony, difficult-to-cultivate lymph. Loose soil is found on the protrusions of the Kopasz Hill in Tokaj.”
And at the place where the Bodrog flows into the Tisza, an earthen castle was built, which was called Hímesudvar. Today we know this settlement as Tokaj. The name Tokaj is probably of ancient Turkish origin, & ldquo; riverside forest & rdquo; the meaning.
The first authentic mention of the vineyards of Tokaj-Hegyalja dates from 1251, in the charter of the Turóczi provost. The kings of the árpád dynasty settled vine-growers with a great viticulture culture in the territory of the kingdom. At that time, the Tokaj foothills did not stand out from our other wine regions.
The Tartar invasion completely destroyed the existing plantations. For reinstallation IV. King Bela brought Italian and Walloon settlers to the country, including Hegyalja. This is evidenced by several village names, eg: Olaszliszka, Bodrogolaszi. Presumably, the Furmint, Bakator and Gohér grape varieties also came to the wine region at that time.
No particularly prominent mention of Tokaj wine was found until the 1400s. Our most famous wine region was the Szerémségi wine region until it was occupied by the Turks. Probably the technology of raisins from the south (Greece) reached the Tokaj foothills via Szerémség.
According to legend, on Easter 1631, the first Aszú was offered to Zsuzsa Lórántfy, priest Máté Sepsi Lackó in Sátoraljaújhely. The grapes came from the Oremus vineyard. According to recent research, this event took place 10-20 years earlier, but more importantly, aszú wine was probably made much earlier in Hegyalja. This is borne out by the fact that the & ldquo; aszú grapes & rdquo; were used as early as the 1590s. (in the Latin - Hungarian dictionary of Balázs Fabricius Szikszai), and they made a certain & ldquo; main wine & rdquo ;, which may be identified with aszú wine. An important prerequisite for aszú formation is late harvest. Until the 1700s, the harvest began in the week of Gál (October 10) and then, through several changes, was made to the day of Simon-Judah (October 28). This is also evidenced by old sayings: "Whether profit or harm, Simon-Judah is the border."”
In the 1600s, more and more laws came into force, and in 1655 the parliament dealt with aszú wine. This also shows the economic weight of aszú wine production.
The making of aszú XVIII. at the end of the 19th century and in the 19th century. reached its peak at the beginning of the century. Hundreds of experts have dealt with aszú, both chemically and health-wise. For a long time, gold was thought to be discovered in him. At that time, almost all of our more prominent wine regions tried to make aszú, but these were pushed out of the market by Tokaj. The most significant competitors are Ruszti, Ménesi volak.
The most important buyers were Poles and Russians. Tsar Peter and Empress Katalin found it so important to provide their aszú supplies that a detachment was stationed in Tokaj, which also oversaw the purchase and security of the shipment.
The decrees of Mária Terézia significantly reduced the distribution of aszú. The phylloxera plague almost completely destroyed the vineyards of Hegyalja. Replanting also resulted in a significant reduction in variety numbers.
A XX. Until the middle of the 19th century, many kosher wines were made for the Jewish festive tables on the Tokaj foothills - one or two wineries still produce for the Israeli market. In addition to large foreign-owned wineries, a number of new cellars appeared in the wine region, breaking with the traditions of winemaking under socialism, focusing on uniqueness and special quality instead of quantity: low-capital, well-drinkable vineyard-selected varietal wines and blends. In order to make all this understandable for both consumers and the market, in 2012 László Alkonyi made an attempt to reconstruct Mátyás Bél's Tokaj vineyard classification system, which for the first time in the world in the early 1700s placed first and second graders. and the vineyards of a wine region into third.
Furmint, Hárslevelû, Sárga muskotály, Zéta (Orémus).
Bianca, Bouvier, Chardonnay, Cserszegi fûszeres, Ezerfürtû, Királyleányka, Leányka, Mézes, Olaszrizling, Ottonel muskotály, Rajnai rizling, Rizlingszilváni, Sauvignon, Szürkebarát, Zala gyöngye, Zefír, Zengõ, Zenit, Tarcal 1., Tarcal 10., Mátrai muskotály, Kövérszõlõ, Gohér.
Areas: 5 246 hectare
Forrás: www.mkk.szie.hu www.bor.info.hu